Shock accelerations and attenuation in downhill and level running

      Abstract

      Objective. A study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of fatigue on the heel strike-initiated shock accelerations and on attenuation of these shocks along the body during eccentric muscle contractions.
      Design. Level and decline running on a treadmill were used to acquire the experimental data on the foot strike-initiated shock accelerations.
      Background. Eccentric contractions of the lower limb muscles in combination with shock generation and propagation during downhill running and muscle fatigue may diminish their ability to dissipate and attenuate loading on the system.
      Methods. Fourteen young healthy males ran on a treadmill at a speed exceeding their anaerobic threshold by 5% for 30 min, as follows: (a) level running and (b) downhill running with a decline angle of −4°. The foot strike-induced shock accelerations were recorded every five minutes on the tibial tuberosity and sacrum. Fatigue was monitored by means of the respiratory parameters.
      Results. The downhill running related with eccentric muscle contractions was associated with increased shock propagation from the tibial tuberosity to the sacrum levels, even though fatigue did not develop.
      Conclusions. Shock propagation from the tibial tuberosity to the sacrum is augmented due to the eccentric action of the muscles, without metabolic fatigue development.
      Relevance
      Eccentric muscle contraction in downhill running reduces the musculoskeletal ability to attenuate the heel strike-induced shock waves. Knowledge about the effect of fatigue on the shock propagation between the shank and the sacrum levels may help in understanding the mechanism of stress fractures and joint damage.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
      Subscribe to Clinical Biomechanics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Walmsley B
        • Hudgson J.A
        • Burke R.E
        Force produced by medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles during locomotion in freely moving cats.
        L Nerophysiol. 1978; 41: 1203-1216
        • Iversen J.R
        • Macmahon T.A
        Running on an incline.
        J Biomech Eng. 1992; 114: 435-441
        • Nurenberg C.J
        • Stray-Gundersen J
        • Fleckenstein J.L
        • Gonyea W.J
        • Peshock R.M
        MR Imaging-guided muscle biopsy for correlation of increased signal intensity with ultrastructural change and delayed-onset muscle soreness after exercise.
        Radiology. 1992; 184: 865-869
        • Byrnes W.C
        • Clarkson P.M
        • White J.S
        • Hsieh S.S
        • Frykman P.N
        • Maughan R.J
        Delayed onset muscle soreness following repeated bouts of downhill running.
        J Appl Physiol. 1985; 59: 710-715
        • Liefeldt G
        • Noakes T.D
        • Dennis S.C
        Oxygen delivery does not limit peak running speed during incremental downhill running to exhaustion.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 1992; 64: 493-496
        • Paul I.L
        • Munro M.B
        • Abernethy S.S.R
        • Radin E.L
        • Rose R.M
        Musculo-skeletal shock absorption: Relative contribution of bone and sort tissue at various frequencies.
        J Biomech. 1978; 11: 237-239
      1. Milgrom C. The Israeli elite infantry recruit: a model for understanding the biomechanics of stress fractures. J R Coll Surg Edinb 1989;34 Suppl 6:S18–S21

        • Radin E.L
        • Parker H.G
        • Pugh G.V
        • Steinberg R.S
        • Paul I.L
        • Rose R.M
        Response of joints to impact loading.
        J Biomech. 1973; 6: 51-57
        • Hamill C.L
        • Clarke T.E
        • Frederick E.C
        • Goodyear L.J
        • Goodyear E.T
        Effect of grade running on the kinematics and impact force (Abstract).
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1984; 16: S185
        • Dick R.W
        • Cavanagh P.R
        A comparison of ground reaction forces (GRF) during level and downhill running at similar speeds (Abstract).
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1987; 19: S12
        • Voloshin A
        • Mizrahi J
        • Verbitsky O
        • Isakov E
        Dynamic loading on the human musculoskeletal system – effect of fatigue.
        Clinical Biomech. 1998; 13: 515-520
        • Fridén J
        • Sjöström M
        • Ekblom B
        Myofibriallar damage following intence eccentric exercise in man.
        Int J Sports Med. 1983; 4: 170-176
        • Fridén J
        • Lieber R.L
        Structural and mechanical basis of exercise-induced muscle injury.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992; 24: 521-530
        • Sargeant A.J
        • Dolan P
        Human muscle function following prolonged eccentric exercise.
        Eur J Appl Physiol. 1987; 56: 704-711
        • Balnave C.D
        • Thompson M.W
        Effect of training on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.
        J Appl Physiol. 1993; 75: 15445-15551
        • Lieber R.L
        • Thornell L.A
        • Friden J
        Muscle cytoskeletal disruption occurs within the first 15 min of cyclic eccentric contraction.
        J Appl Physiol. 1996; 80: 278-284
        • Shorthen M.R
        • Winslow D.S
        Spectral analysis of impact shock during running.
        Int J Sport Biomech. 1992; 8: 288-304
        • Hamill J
        • Derrick T.R
        • Holt K.G
        Shock attenuation and stride frequency during running.
        Hum Mov Sci. 1995; 14: 45-60
        • Derrick T.R
        • Hamill J
        • Caldwell G.E
        Energy absorption of impacts during running at various stride lengths. Med. Sci.
        Sports Exerc. 1998; 30: 128-135
        • Mahar A.T
        • Derrick T.R
        • Hamill J
        • Caldwell G.E
        Impact shock and attenuation during in-line skating.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997; 29: 1069-1075
        • Wasserman K
        • Whipp B.J
        • Koyal S.N
        • Beaver W.L
        Anaerobic threshold and respiratory gas exchange during exercise.
        J Appl Physiol. 1973; 35: 236-243
      2. Whipp BJ. Dynamics of pulmonary gas exchange. Circulation 1987;76 Suppl 6:VI-18–VI-27

        • Mizrahi J
        • Susak Z
        In vivo elasic and damping response of the human leg to impact forces.
        ASME J Biomech Engrg. 1982; 104: 63-66
        • Streitman A
        • Pugh J
        The response of the lower extremity to impact forces. I. Design of an economical low frequency recording system for physiologic waveforms.
        Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases. 1978; 39: 63-73
        • Mizrahi J
        • Voloshin A
        • Russek D
        • Verbitsky O
        • Isakov E
        The influence of fatigue on EMG and impact acceleration in running.
        Basic and Appl Myology. 1997; 7: 119-126
        • Verbitsky O
        • Mizrahi J
        • Voloshin A
        • Treiger J
        • Isakov E
        Shock transmission and fatigue in human running.
        J Appl Biomech. 1998; 14: 301-311
        • Radin E.L
        Role of muscles in protecting athletes from injury.
        Acta Med Scand Suppl. 1986; 711: 143-147
        • Jefferson R.J
        • Collins J.J
        • Whittle M.W
        • Radin E.L
        • O’Connor J.J
        The role of the quadriceps in controlling impulsive forces around heel strike.
        Proc Inst Mech Engrs. 1990; 204: 21-28