Advertisement

Biomechanical characteristics and muscle function in individuals with patellofemoral osteoarthritis: A systematic review of cross-sectional studies

  • Cristiano Carvalho
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235 -SP-310, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905, Brazil.
    Affiliations
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil

    Physical Therapy Post-Graduate Program, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil
    Search for articles by this author
  • Marcos Paulo Braz de Oliveira
    Affiliations
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil

    Physical Therapy Post-Graduate Program, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil
    Search for articles by this author
  • Giulia Keppe Pisani
    Affiliations
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil

    Physical Therapy Post-Graduate Program, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil
    Search for articles by this author
  • Isabela Bianchini Marolde
    Affiliations
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil

    Physical Therapy Post-Graduate Program, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil
    Search for articles by this author
  • Paula Regina Mendes da Silva Serrão
    Affiliations
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil

    Physical Therapy Post-Graduate Program, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil
    Search for articles by this author

      Highlights

      • The level of evidence was very low for all synthesized evidence for kinematics.
      • The level of evidence was very low for all synthesized evidence for muscle strength.
      • Kinetics evaluation is heterogeneous to date.

      Abstract

      Background

      Our objective was to investigate kinematic and kinetic characteristics and changes in muscle function in individuals with patellofemoral osteoarthritis compared to healthy individuals.

      Methods

      Searches were performed of the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, LILACS, and SciELO databases until May of 2022 for observational studies comparing individuals with patellofemoral osteoarthritis to a control group. The PRISMA guidelines and recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration were followed. The GRADE approach was used to analyze and synthesize the level of evidence.

      Findings

      Fourteen studies were included, involving a total of 594 participants (360 with patellofemoral osteoarthritis and 234 controls). The level of evidence for pelvis, hip adduction and knee abduction angles at 45° of knee flexion during the single-leg squat, and knee flexion angle during the task of walking was very low. Regarding muscle strength, the level of evidence for isometric strength of the hip abductors, extensors and external rotators, and concentric strength of the knee extensors and flexors was very low. It was not possible to synthesize any type of evidence for kinetic, electromyography, or muscle volume variables.

      Interpretation

      The level of evidence was very low for all synthesized evidence for kinematic and muscle strength variables. However, individuals with patellofemoral osteoarthritis have lower isometric strength of the hip abductor muscles. Further studies with adequate adjustment for confounding factors, such as the non-inclusion of individuals with osteoarthritis in the tibiofemoral compartment concomitant to patellofemoral osteoarthritis, are needed to gain a better understanding of the clinical characteristics of patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Clinical Biomechanics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ackland D.C.
        • Denton M.
        • Schache A.G.
        • Pandy M.G.
        • Crossley K.M.
        Hip abductor muscle volumes are smaller in individuals affected by patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis.
        Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2019; 27: 266-272https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2018.09.013
        • Akobeng A.K.
        Assessing the validity of clinical trials.
        J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 2008; 47: 277-282https://doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0b013e31816c749f
        • Altman R.D.
        • Hochberg M.
        • Murphy W.A.
        • Wolfe F.
        • Lequesne M.
        Atlas of individual radiographic features in osteoarthritis.
        Osteoarthr. Cartil. 1995; : 3-70
        • Amin S.
        • Baker K.
        • Niu J.
        • Clancy M.
        • Goggins J.
        • Guermazi A.
        • Grigoryan M.
        • Hunter D.J.
        • Felson D.T.
        Quadriceps strength and the risk of cartilage loss and symptom progression in knee osteoarthritis.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2009; 60: 189-198https://doi.org/10.1002/art.24182
        • Aminaka N.
        • Pietrosimone B.G.
        • Armstrong C.W.
        • Meszaros A.
        • Gribble P.A.
        Patellofemoral pain syndrome alters neuromuscular control and kinetics during stair ambulation.
        J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 2011; 21: 645-651https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2011.03.007
        • Barton C.J.
        • Lack S.
        • Malliaras P.
        • Morrissey D.
        Gluteal muscle activity and patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review.
        Br. J. Sports Med. 2013; 47: 207-214https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2012-090953
        • Bown M.J.
        • Sutton A.J.
        Quality control in systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
        Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 2010; 40: 669-677https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2010.07.011
        • Callaghan M.J.
        • Parkes M.J.
        • Hutchinson C.E.
        • Felson D.T.
        Factors associated with arthrogenous muscle inhibition in patellofemoral osteoarthritis.
        Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2014; 22: 742-746https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2014.03.015
        • Carvalho C.
        • Serrão F.V.
        • Mancini L.
        • da Serrão P.R.M.S.
        Impaired muscle capacity of the hip and knee in individuals with isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.
        Ther. Adv. Chronic Dis. 2021; 12: 1-15https://doi.org/10.1177/20406223211028764
        • Carvalho C.
        • Serrão F.V.
        • Pisani G.K.
        • Martinez A.F.
        • da Serrão P.R.M.S.
        Frontal plane biomechanics during single-leg squat and hip strength in patients with isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis compared to matched controls: a cross-sectional study.
        PLoS One. 2022; 17e0267446https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0267446
        • Cohen J.
        Statistical power analysis for the Behavioural science (2nd edition).
        in: Statistical Power Anaylsis for the Behavioral Sciences. Routledge Academic, New York1988
        • Crossley K.M.
        • Hinman R.S.
        The patellofemoral joint: the forgotten joint in knee osteoarthritis.
        Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2011; 19: 765-767https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2011.05.005
        • Crossley K.M.
        • Dorn T.W.
        • Ozturk H.
        • van den Noort J.
        • Schache A.G.
        • Pandy M.G.
        Altered hip muscle forces during gait in people with patellofemoral osteoarthritis.
        Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2012; 20: 1243-1249https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2012.07.011
        • Crossley K.M.
        • Stefanik J.J.
        • Selfe J.
        • Collins N.J.
        • Davis I.S.
        • Powers C.M.
        • McConnell J.
        • Vicenzino B.
        • Bazett-Jones D.M.
        • Esculier J.F.
        • Morrissey D.
        • Callaghan M.J.
        2016 patellofemoral pain consensus statement from the 4th international patellofemoral pain research retreat, Manchester. Part 1: terminology, definitions, clinical examination, natural history, patellofemoral osteoarthritis and patient-reported outcome m.
        Br. J. Sports Med. 2016; 50: 839-843https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096384
        • Crossley K.M.
        • Schache A.G.
        • Ozturk H.
        • Lentzos J.
        • Munanto M.
        • Pandy M.G.
        Pelvic and hip kinematics during walking in people with patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis compared to healthy age-matched controls.
        Arthritis Care Res. 2018; 70: 309-314https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.23261
        • Culvenor A.G.
        • Schache A.G.
        • Vicenzino B.
        • Pandy M.G.
        • Collins N.J.
        • Cook J.L.
        • Crossley K.M.
        Are knee biomechanics different in those with and without patellofemoral osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction?.
        Arthritis Care Res. 2014; 66: 1566-1570https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.22313
        • Culvenor A.G.
        • Perraton L.
        • Guermazi A.
        • Bryant A.L.
        • Whitehead T.S.
        • Morris H.G.
        • Crossley K.M.
        Knee kinematics and kinetics are associated with early patellofemoral osteoarthritis following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
        Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2016; 24: 1548-1553https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2016.05.010
        • Culvenor A.G.
        • Segal N.A.
        • Guermazi A.
        • Roemer F.
        • Felson D.T.
        • Nevitt M.C.
        • Lewis C.E.
        • Stefanik J.J.
        Sex-specific influence of quadriceps weakness on worsening patellofemoral and tibiofemoral cartilage damage: a prospective cohort study.
        Arthritis Care Res. 2019; 71: 1360-1365https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.23773
        • de Oliveira Silva D.
        • Briani R.
        • Pazzinatto M.
        • Ferrari D.
        • Aragão F.
        • de Azevedo F.
        Vertical ground reaction forces are associated with pain and self-reported functional status in recreational athletes with patellofemoral pain.
        J. Appl. Biomech. 2015; 31: 409-414https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.2015-0048
        • Delp S.L.
        • Hess W.E.
        • Hungerford D.S.
        • Jones L.C.
        Variation of rotation moment arms with hip flexion.
        J. Biomech. 1999; 32: 493-501https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(99)00032-9
        • Dierks T.A.
        • Manal K.T.
        • Hamill J.
        • Davis I.S.
        Proximal and distal influences on hip and knee kinematics in runners with patellofemoral pain during a prolonged run.
        J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 2008; 38: 448-456https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2008.2490
        • Downs S.H.
        • Black N.
        The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions.
        J. Epidemiol. Community Health. 1998; 52: 377-384https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.52.6.377
        • Duncan R.C.
        • Hay E.M.
        • Saklatvala J.
        • Croft P.R.
        Prevalence of radiographic osteoarthritis - it all depends on your point of view.
        Rheumatology. 2006; 45: 757-760https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kei270
        • Duncan R.
        • Peat G.
        • Thomas E.
        • Wood L.
        • Hay E.
        • Croft P.
        How do pain and function vary with compartmental distribution and severity of radiographic knee osteoarthritis?.
        Rheumatology. 2008; 47: 1704-1707https://doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/ken339
        • Duncan R.
        • Peat G.
        • Thomas E.
        • Wood L.
        • Hay E.
        • Croft P.
        Does isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis matter?.
        Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2009; 17: 1151-1155https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2009.03.016
        • Duncan R.
        • Peat G.
        • Thomas E.
        • Hay E.M.
        • Croft P.
        Incidence, progression and sequence of development of radiographic knee osteoarthritis in a symptomatic population.
        Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2011; 70: 1944-1948https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.2011.151050
        • Fabbri S.
        • Silva C.
        • Hernandes E.
        • Octaviano S.
        • Di Thommazo A.
        • Belgamo A.
        Improvements in the StArt tool to better support the systematic review process.
        in: Proc. 20 th Int. Conf. Eval. Assess. Softw. Eng.2016
        • Ferber R.
        • Davis I.M.C.
        • Williams D.S.
        Gender differences in lower extremity mechanics during running.
        Clin. Biomech. 2003; 18: 350-357https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-0033(03)00025-1
        • Fok L.A.
        • Schache A.G.
        • Crossley K.M.
        • Lin Y.C.
        • Pandy M.G.
        Patellofemoral joint loading during stair ambulation in people with patellofemoral osteoarthritis.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2013; 65: 2059-2069https://doi.org/10.1002/art.38025
        • Ford K.R.
        • Myer G.D.
        • Smith R.L.
        • Vianello R.M.
        • Seiwert S.L.
        • Hewett T.E.
        A comparison of dynamic coronal plane excursion between matched male and female athletes when performing single leg landings.
        Clin. Biomech. 2006; 21: 33-40https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2005.08.010
        • Giles L.S.
        • Webster K.E.
        • McClelland J.A.
        • Cook J.
        Does quadriceps atrophy exist in individuals with patellofemoral pain? A systematic literature review with Meta-analysis.
        J. Orthop. Sport. Phys. Ther. 2013; 43: 766-776https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2013.4833
        • Guyatt G.H.
        • Oxman A.D.
        • Vist G.E.
        • Kunz R.
        • Falck-Ytter Y.
        • Alonso-Coello P.
        • Schünemann H.J.
        GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.
        BMJ. 2008; 336: 924-926https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39489.470347.AD
        • Guyatt G.H.
        • Oxman A.D.
        • Montori V.
        • Vist G.
        • Kunz R.
        • Brozek J.
        • Alonso-Coello P.
        • Djulbegovic B.
        • Atkins D.
        • Falck-Ytter Y.
        • Williams J.W.
        • Meerpohl J.
        • Norris S.L.
        • Akl E.A.
        • Schünemann H.J.
        GRADE guidelines: 5. Rating the quality of evidence - publication bias.
        J. Clin. Epidemiol. 2011; 64: 1277-1282https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2011.01.011
        • Hart H.F.
        • Ackland D.C.
        • Pandy M.G.
        • Crossley K.M.
        Quadriceps volumes are reduced in people with patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis.
        Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2012; 20: 863-868https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2012.04.009
        • Hedges L.V.
        • Olkin I.
        Statistical methods for meta-analysis.
        J. Educ. Stat. 1985; 13: 75https://doi.org/10.2307/1164953
        • Hewett T.E.
        • Torg J.S.
        • Boden B.P.
        Video analysis of trunk and knee motion during non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are combined components of the injury mechanism.
        Br. J. Sports Med. 2009; 43: 417-422https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2009.059162
        • Higgins J.
        • Thomas J.
        • Chandler J.
        • Cumpston M.
        • Li T.
        • Page M.
        • Welch V.
        Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 6.1. [WWW Document].
        Cochrane Collab, 2020 (URL) (accessed 10.15.20)
        • Hoglund L.T.
        • Hillstrom H.J.
        • Barr-Gillespie A.E.
        • Lockard M.A.
        • Barbe M.F.
        • Song J.
        Frontal plane knee and hip kinematics during sit-to-stand and proximal lower extremity strength in persons with patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a pilot study.
        J. Appl. Biomech. 2014; 30: 82-94https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.2012-0244
        • Kellgren J.H.
        • Lawrence J.S.
        Radiological assessment of osteo-arthrosis.
        Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1957; 16: 494-502https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.16.4.494
        • Kendall F.
        • McCreary E.K.
        • Provance P.G.
        • Rodgers M.
        • Romani W.
        Muscles: testing and function, with posture and pain: testing and function with posture and pain.
        in: Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery. 5th ed. Wolters Kluwer Health, 2005
        • Kobayashi S.
        • Pappas E.
        • Fransen M.
        • Refshauge K.
        • Simic M.
        The prevalence of patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2016; 24: 1697-1707https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2016.05.011
        • Kornaat P.R.
        • Bloem J.L.
        • Ceulemans R.Y.T.
        • Riyazi N.
        • Rosendaal F.R.
        • Nelissen R.G.
        • Carter W.O.
        • Le Graverand M.P.H.
        • Kloppenburg M.
        Osteoarthritis of the knee: association between clinical features and MR imaging findings.
        Radiology. 2006; 239: 811-817https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2393050253
        • Lankhorst N.E.
        • Bierma-Zeinstra S.M.A.
        • Van Middelkoop M.
        Risk factors for patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review.
        J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 2012; 42https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2012.3803
        • Liao T.C.
        • Yang N.
        • Ho K.Y.
        • Farrokhi S.
        • Powers C.M.
        Femur rotation increases Patella cartilage stress in females with patellofemoral pain.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2015; 47: 1775-1780https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000617
        • Macri E.M.
        • Crossley K.M.
        • Hart H.F.
        • D’Entremont A.G.
        • Forster B.B.
        • Ratzlaff C.R.
        • Wilson D.R.
        • Khan K.M.
        Clinical findings in patellofemoral osteoarthritis compared to individually-matched controls: a pilot study.
        BMJ Open Sport Exerc. Med. 2020; 6e000877https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000877
        • Mason J.J.
        • Leszko F.
        • Johnson T.
        • Komistek R.D.
        Patellofemoral joint forces.
        J. Biomech. 2008; 41: 2337-2348https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.04.039
        • McAlindon T.E.
        • Snow S.
        • Cooper C.
        • Dieppe P.A.
        Radiographic patterns of osteoarthritis of the knee joint in the community: the importance of the patellofemoral joint.
        Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1992; 51: 844-849https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.51.7.844
        • Mills K.
        • Hunt M.A.
        • Ferber R.
        Biomechanical deviations during level walking associated with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Arthritis Care Res. 2013; 65 (n/a-n/a)https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.22015
        • Mustafa R.A.
        • Santesso N.
        • Brozek J.
        • Akl E.A.
        • Walter S.D.
        • Norman G.
        • Kulasegaram M.
        • Christensen R.
        • Guyatt G.H.
        • Falck-Ytter Y.
        • Chang S.
        • Murad M.H.
        • Vist G.E.
        • Lasserson T.
        • Gartlehner G.
        • Shukla V.
        • Sun X.
        • Whittington C.
        • Post P.N.
        • Lang E.
        • Thaler K.
        • Kunnamo I.
        • Alenius H.
        • Meerpohl J.J.
        • Alba A.C.
        • Nevis I.F.
        • Gentles S.
        • Ethier M.-C.
        • Carrasco-Labra A.
        • Khatib R.
        • Nesrallah G.
        • Kroft J.
        • Selk A.
        • Brignardello-Petersen R.
        • Schünemann H.J.
        The GRADE approach is reproducible in assessing the quality of evidence of quantitative evidence syntheses.
        J. Clin. Epidemiol. 2013; 66: 736-742.e5https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.02.004
        • Nakagawa Theresa Helissa
        • Moriya É.T.U.
        • Maciel C.D.
        • Serrão F.V.
        Frontal plane biomechanics in males and females with and without patellofemoral pain.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2012; 44: 1747-1755https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318256903a
        • Nakagawa Theresa H.
        • Moriya É.T.U.
        • Maciel C.D.
        • Serrão F.V.
        Trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee kinematics, hip strength, and gluteal muscle activation during a single-leg squat in males and females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome.
        J. Orthop. Sport. Phys. Ther. 2012; 42: 491-501https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2012.3987
        • Neal B.S.
        • Lack S.D.
        • Lankhorst N.E.
        • Raye A.
        • Morrissey D.
        • van Middelkoop M.
        Risk factors for patellofemoral pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Br. J. Sports Med. 2019; 53: 270-281https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098890
        • Page M.
        • McKenzie J.
        • Bossuyt P.
        • Boutron I.
        • Hoffman T.
        • Mulrow C.
        • Shamseer L.
        • Tetzlaff J.
        • Akl E.
        • Brennan S.
        • Chou R.
        • Glanville J.
        • Grimshaw J.
        • Hróbjartsson A.
        • Lalu M.
        • Li T.
        • Loder E.
        • Mayo-Wilson E.
        • McDonald S.
        • McGuinness L.
        • Stewart L.
        • Thomas J.
        • Tricco A.
        • Welch V.
        • Whiting P.
        • Moher D.
        The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews.
        Meta ArXiv Prepr. 2020; https://doi.org/10.31222/osf.io/v7gm2
        • Paoloni M.
        • Mangone M.
        • Fratocchi G.
        • Murgia M.
        • Maria Saraceni V.
        • Santilli V.
        Kinematic and kinetic features of normal level walking in patellofemoral pain syndrome: more than a sagittal plane alteration.
        J. Biomech. 2010; 43: 1794-1798https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.02.013
        • Pappas E.
        • Wong-Tom W.M.
        Prospective predictors of patellofemoral pain syndrome: a systematic review with meta-analysis.
        Sport. Heal. A Multidiscip. Approach. 2012; 4: 115-120https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738111432097
        • Peterfy C.
        • Guermazi A.
        • Zaim S.
        • Tirman P.F.
        • Miaux Y.
        • White D.
        • Kothari M.
        • Lu Y.
        • Fye K.
        • Zhao S.
        • Genant H.
        Whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging score (WORMS) of the knee in osteoarthritis.
        Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2004; 12: 177-190https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2003.11.003
        • Pohl M.B.
        • Patel C.
        • Wiley J.P.
        • Ferber R.
        Gait biomechanics and hip muscular strength in patients with patellofemoral osteoarthritis.
        Gait Posture. 2013; 37: 440-444https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.08.017
        • Powers C.M.
        The influence of altered lower-extremity kinematics on patellofemoral joint dysfunction: a theoretical perspective.
        J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 2003; 33: 639-646https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2003.33.11.639
        • Powers C.M.
        The influence of abnormal hip mechanics on knee injury: a biomechanical perspective.
        J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 2010; 40: 42-51https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2010.3337
        • Powers C.M.
        • Shellock F.G.
        • Pfaff M.
        Quantification of patellar tracking using kinematic MRI.
        J. Magn. Reson. Imaging. 1998; 8: 724-732https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.1880080332
        • Powers C.M.
        • Witvrouw E.
        • Davis I.S.
        • Crossley K.M.
        Evidence-based framework for a pathomechanical model of patellofemoral pain: 2017 patellofemoral pain consensus statement from the 4th international patellofemoral pain research retreat, Manchester, UK: part 3.
        Br. J. Sports Med. 2017; 51: 1713-1723https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098717
        • Rathleff M.S.
        • Rathleff C.R.
        • Crossley K.M.
        • Barton C.J.
        Is hip strength a risk factor for patellofemoral pain? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Br. J. Sports Med. 2014; 48: 1088https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093305
        • Roos E.M.
        • Herzog W.
        • Block J.A.
        • Bennell K.L.
        Muscle weakness, afferent sensory dysfunction and exercise in knee osteoarthritis.
        Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 2011; 7: 57-63https://doi.org/10.1038/nrrheum.2010.195
        • Salsich G.B.
        Patellofemoral joint contact area is influenced by tibiofemoral rotation alignment in individuals who have patellofemoral pain.
        J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 2007; 37: 521-528https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2007.2589
        • Salsich G.B.
        • Ward S.R.
        • Terk M.R.
        • Powers C.M.
        In vivo assessment of patellofemoral joint contact area in individuals who are pain free.
        Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 2003; 277–84https://doi.org/10.1097/01.blo.0000093024.56370.79
        • Semciw A.
        • Neate R.
        • Pizzari T.
        Running related gluteus medius function in health and injury: a systematic review with meta-analysis.
        J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 2016; 30: 98-110https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2016.06.005
        • Souza R.B.
        • Powers C.M.
        Differences in hip kinematics, muscle strength, and muscle activation between subjects with and without patellofemoral pain.
        J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 2009; 39: 12-19https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2009.2885
        • Stefanik J.J.
        • Guermazi A.
        • Zhu Y.
        • Zumwalt A.C.
        • Gross K.D.
        • Clancy M.
        • Lynch J.A.
        • Segal N.A.
        • Lewis C.E.
        • Roemer F.W.
        • Powers C.M.
        • Felson D.T.
        Quadriceps weakness, patella Alta, and structural features of patellofemoral osteoarthritis.
        Arthritis Care Res. 2011; 63: 1391-1397https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.20528
        • Stefanik J.J.
        • Niu J.
        • Gross K.D.
        • Roemer F.W.
        • Guermazi A.
        • Felson D.T.
        Using magnetic resonance imaging to determine the compartmental prevalence of knee joint structural damage.
        Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2013; 21: 695-699https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2013.02.003
        • Stefanik J.J.
        • Guermazi A.
        • Roemer F.W.
        • Peat G.
        • Niu J.
        • Segal N.A.
        • Lewis C.E.
        • Nevitt M.
        • Felson D.T.
        Changes in patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joint cartilage damage and bone marrow lesions over 7 years: the multicenter osteoarthritis study.
        Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2016; 24: 1160-1166https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2016.01.981
        • Szebenyi B.
        • Hollander A.P.
        • Dieppe P.
        • Quilty B.
        • Buddy J.
        • Clarke S.
        • Kirwan J.R.
        Associations between pain, function, and radiographic features in osteoarthritis of the knee.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2006; 54: 230-235https://doi.org/10.1002/art.21534
        • Teixeira R.V.
        • Colla C.
        • Sbruzzi G.
        • Mallmann A.
        • Paiva L.L.
        Prevalence of urinary incontinence in female athletes: a systematic review with meta-analysis.
        Int. Urogynecol. J. 2018; 29: 1717-1725https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-018-3651-1
        • Teng H.-L.
        • MacLeod T.D.
        • Kumar D.
        • Link T.M.
        • Majumdar S.
        • Souza R.B.
        Individuals with isolated patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis exhibit higher mechanical loading at the knee during the second half of the stance phase.
        Clin. Biomech. 2015; 30: 383-390https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2015.02.008
        • Thomas M.J.
        • Wood L.
        • Selfe J.
        • Peat G.
        Anterior knee pain in younger adults as a precursor to subsequent patellofemoral osteoarthritis: a systematic review.
        BMC Musculoskelet. Disord. 2010; 11: 201https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-11-201
        • Trepczynski A.
        • Kutzner I.
        • Kornaropoulos E.
        • Taylor W.R.
        • Duda G.N.
        • Bergmann G.
        • Heller M.O.
        Patellofemoral joint contact forces during activities with high knee flexion.
        J. Orthop. Res. 2012; 30: 408-415https://doi.org/10.1002/jor.21540
        • Utting M.R.
        • Davies G.
        • Newman J.H.
        Is anterior knee pain a predisposing factor to patellofemoral osteoarthritis?.
        Knee. 2005; 12: 362-365https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knee.2004.12.006
        • Van Tiggelen D.
        • Cowan S.
        • Coorevits P.
        • Duvigneaud N.
        • Witvrouw E.
        Delayed vastus medialis obliquus to vastus lateralis onset timing contributes to the development of patellofemoral pain in previously healthy men: a prospective study.
        Am. J. Sports Med. 2009; 37: 1099-1105https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546508331135
        • Willson J.D.
        • Davis I.S.
        Utility of the frontal plane projection angle in females with patellofemoral pain.
        J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 2008; 38: 606-615https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2008.2706
        • Wirtz A.D.
        • Willson J.D.
        • Kernozek T.W.
        • Hong D.-A.
        Patellofemoral joint stress during running in females with and without patellofemoral pain.
        Knee. 2012; 19: 703-708https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knee.2011.09.006
        • Witvrouw E.
        • Lysens R.
        • Bellemans J.
        • Cambier D.
        • Vanderstraeten G.
        Intrinsic risk factors for the development of anterior knee pain in an athletic population: a two-year prospective study.
        Am. J. Sports Med. 2000; 28: 480-489https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465000280040701
        • Wyndow N.
        • Crossley K.M.
        • Stafford R.
        • Vicenzino B.
        • Collins N.J.
        • Tucker K.
        Neuromotor control during stair ambulation in individuals with patellofemoral osteoarthritis compared to asymptomatic controls.
        Gait Posture. 2019; 71: 92-97https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.03.029
        • Zazulak B.T.
        • Ponce P.L.
        • Straub S.J.
        • Medvecky M.J.
        • Avedisian L.
        • Hewett T.E.
        Gender comparison of hip muscle activity during single-leg landing.
        J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 2005; 35: 292-299https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2005.35.5.292