The impact of standardized footwear on load and load symmetry


      • Load outcomes are comparable between standardized and non-standardized footwear.
      • Load symmetry outcomes for bilateral tasks are comparable between standardized and non-standardized footwear.
      • The load analysis program could assist with load analysis in clinical settings.



      The inability to standardize footwear is a potential issue when measuring landing kinetics in non-laboratory settings. This study determined the impact of not standardizing footwear on load and load symmetry during landing. A secondary purpose of this study was to introduce the Load Analysis Program, an open-source MATLAB® user-interface for computing kinetic and kinetic symmetry from data collected using loadsol® sensors.


      Forty uninjured participants completed bilateral and unilateral landing tasks in their own preferred athletic footwear and in laboratory-standardized footwear. Peak impact force, impulse, and a limb symmetry index of both kinetic outcomes were computed using loadsol® sensors (200 Hz) for both footwear conditions, and compared between footwear conditions using intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots.


      The agreement between the preferred and standardized conditions was good to excellent for peak impact force, peak impact force limb symmetry index, and impulse limb symmetry index during the bilateral task (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.870–0.951). The agreement was moderate to poor for unilateral limb symmetry index measures (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.399–0.516). During the preferred footwear condition, impulse was greater for the left limb during bilateral landing, and peak impact force during unilateral landing on the right limb was decreased, when compared to the standardized footwear condition (p < 0.05).


      These results suggest that while not standardizing footwear can alter the results of certain load metrics, laboratory-relevant landing mechanics information can be obtained with participants wearing their own footwear.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Clinical Biomechanics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Bakker R.
        • Tomescu S.S.
        • Brenneman E.C.
        • Hangalur G.
        • Laing A.C.
        • Chandrashekar N.H.
        Effect of sagittal plane mechanics on ACL strain during jump landing.
        J. Orthop. Res. 2016; 34: 1636-1644
        • Barber-Westin S.D.
        • Noyes F.
        Factors used to determine return to unrestricted sports activities after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
        Arthroscopy: J. Arthroscopic & Related Surgery. 2011; 27: 1697-1705
        • Cohen J.
        A power primer.
        Psychol. Bull. 1992; 112: 155-159
        • Cruz A.
        • Bell D.R.
        • McGrath M.L.
        • Blackburn J.T.
        • Padua D.A.
        • Herman D.C.
        The effects of three jump landing tasks on kinetic and kinematic measures: implications for ACL injury research.
        Res Sports Med. 2013; 21: 330-342
        • Dai B.
        • Butler R.J.
        • Garrett W.E.
        • Queen R.M.
        Using ground reaction force to predict knee kinetic asymmetry following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
        Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports. 2014; 24: 974-981
        • Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe A.
        • Gual G.
        • Romero-Rodriguez D.
        • Unnitha V.B.
        Lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry in volleyball and basketball players.
        J. Human Kinetics. 2016; 50: 135-143
        • Giavarina D.
        Understanding bland altman analysis.
        Biochemia Medica (Zagreb). 2015; 25: 141-151
        • Hewett T.E.
        • Myer G.D.
        • Ford K.R.
        • et al.
        Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study.
        Am. J. Sports Med. 2005; 33: 492-501
        • Koo T.K.
        • Li M.Y.
        A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research [published correction appears in J Chiropr Med. 2017 Dec;16(4):346].
        J. Chiropractic Med. 2016; 15: 155-163
        • Lam W.K.
        • Liu H.
        • Wu G.Q.
        • Liu Z.L.
        • Sun W.
        Effect of shoe wearing time and midsole hardness on ground reaction forces, ankle stability and perceived comfort in basketball landing.
        J. Sports Sci. 2019; 37: 2347-2355
        • Leppänen M.H.
        • Pasanen K.
        • Krosshaug T.
        • et al.
        Sagittal Plane Hip, Knee, and Ankle biomechanics and the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury: a prospective study.
        Orthopaedic J. Sports Med. 2017; 5 (232596711774548)
        • Milner C.E.
        • Hamill J.
        • Davis I.S.
        Are knee mechanics during early stance related to tibial stress fracture in runners?.
        Clin. Biomech. 2007; 22: 697-703
        • Milner C.E.
        • Westlake C.G.
        • Tate J.J.
        Test-retest reliability of knee biomechanics during stop jump landings.
        J. Biomech. 2011; 44: 1814-1816
        • Mok K.M.
        Reliability of knee biomechanics during a vertical drop jump in elite female athletes.
        Gait & posture. 2016; 46: 173-178
        • Nin D.Z.
        • Lam W.K.
        • Kong P.W.
        Effect of body mass and midsole hardness on kinetic and perceptual variables during basketball landing manoeuvres.
        J. Sports Sci. 2016; 34: 756-765
        • Paterno M.V.
        • Schmitt L.C.
        • Ford K.R.
        • et al.
        Biomechanical measures during landing and postural stability predict second anterior cruciate ligament injury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and return to sport.
        Am. J. Sports Med. 2010; 38: 1968-1978
        • Peebles A.T.
        Sex-based differences in landing mechanics vary between the drop vertical jump and stop jump.
        J. Biomech. 2020 May 22; 105 (Epub 2020 Apr 24. PMID: 32423549): 109818
        • Peebles A.T.
        • Maguire L.A.
        • Renner K.E.
        • Queen R.M.
        Validity and repeatability of single-sensor Loadsol® insoles during landing.
        Sensors (Basel). 2018; 18: 4082
        • Peebles A.T.
        • Renner K.E.
        • Miller T.K.
        • Moskal J.T.
        • Queen R.M.
        Associations between distance and loading symmetry during return to sport hop testing.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2019; 51: 624-629
        • Peebles A.T.
        • Ford K.R.
        • Taylor J.B.
        • Hart J.M.
        • Sands L.P.
        • Queen R.M.
        Using force sensing insoles to predict kinetic knee symmetry during a stop jump.
        J. Biomech. 2019; 95
        • Queen R.M.
        • Dickerson L.C.
        • Ranganathan S.
        • Schmitt D.
        A novel method for measuring asymmetry in kinematic and kinetic variables: the normalized symmetry index.
        J. Biomech. 2020; 99: 109531
        • Renner K.E.
        • Williams D.S.B.
        • Queen R.M.
        The reliability and validity of the Loadsol® under various walking and running conditions.
        Sensors (Basel). 2019; 19: 265
        • Schmitt L.C.
        • Paterno M.V.
        • Ford K.R.
        • Myer G.D.
        • Hewett T.E.
        Strength asymmetry and landing mechanics at return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2015; 47: 1426-1434
        • Sinclair J.K.
        • Taylor P.J.
        Influence of new military athletic footwear on the kinetics and kinematics of running in relation to army boots.
        J. Strength Cond. Res. 2014; 28: 2900-2908
        • Sun X.
        • Lam W.K.
        • Zhang X.
        • Wang J.
        • Fu W.
        Systematic review of the role of footwear constructions in running biomechanics: implications for running-related injury and performance.
        J. Sports Sci. Med. 2020; 19: 20-37
        • TenBroek T.M.
        • Rodrigues P.A.
        • Frederick E.C.
        • Hamill J.
        Midsole thickness affects running patterns in habitual rearfoot strikers during a sustained run.
        J. Appl. Biomech. 2014; 30: 521-528
        • Walsh M.S.
        The validation of a portable force plate for measuring force-time data during jumping and landing tasks.
        J Strength Cond Res. 2006 Nov; 20 (PMID: 17194240): 730-734
        • Walsh M.S.
        • Ford K.R.
        • Bangen K.J.
        • Myer G.D.
        • Hewett T.E.
        The validation of a portable force plate for measuring force-time data during jumping and landing tasks.
        J. Strength Cond. Res. 2006; 20: 730-734
        • Wei Q.
        • Wang Z.
        • Woo J.
        • et al.
        Kinetics and perception of basketball landing in various heights and footwear cushioning.
        PLoS One. 2018; 13e0201758
        • Zhang S.
        • Clowers K.G.
        • Kohstall C.D.
        • Yu Y.J.
        Effects of various midsole densities of basketball shoes on impact attenuation during landing activities.
        J. Appl. Biomech. 2005; 21: 3-17