- •Walking characteristics of runners with a transfemoral amputation was analyzed.
- •The intact limb generated more plantarflexor and hip extensor moment.
- •The intact limb generated more positive ankle and hip joint power.
- •Runners with a transfemoral amputation rely on the intact limb while walking.
Running with prostheses has become a common activity for amputees participating in sports and recreation. However, very few studies have characterized the kinematic and kinetic parameters of walking in individuals with amputation who are runners. Thus, this study attempts to elucidate the kinematics and kinetics of walking in runners with a unilateral transfemoral amputation or knee-disarticulation.
This study experimentally compares the prosthetic and intact limbs of runners with prostheses as well as compares the findings against the limbs of age-matched able-bodied individuals while walking. Fourteen runners with a unilateral transfemoral amputation or knee-disarticulation were recruited and 14 age-matched able-bodied individuals were prepared using gait database. Spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters of walking were analyzed using a 3-demensional motion capture system.
The results showed that the peak ankle positive power at pre-swing and peak hip positive power from loading response to mid stance in the intact limb were significantly larger than that in the prosthetic limb. Moreover, to compensate for missing anatomical functions on the prosthetic limb, it appeared that the intact limb of the runners generated larger peak joint power by producing more ankle plantarflexor and hip extensor moments while walking.
This study demonstrated that the runners rely on their intact limb while walking. Training of hip extensor muscles of the intact limb may be beneficial for these individuals.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Clinical Biomechanics
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Transfemoral amputations: the effect of residual limb length and orientation on gait analysis outcome measures.J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 2013; 95: 408-414
- Atlas of Limb Prosthetics : Surgical, Prosthetic, and Rehabilitation Principles.2nd ed. Mosby Year Book, St. Louis2002
- Amputees and sports: a systematic review.Sports Med. 2011; 41: 721-740
- Assessment of transfemoral amputees using a passive microprocessor-controlled knee versus an active powered microprocessor-controlled knee for level walking.Biomed. Eng. Online. 2016; 15: 142
- Vaulting quantification during level walking of transfemoral amputees.Clin. Biomech. (Bristol, Avon). 2014; 29: 679-683
- Impact of a stance phase microprocessor-controlled knee prosthesis on level walking in lower functioning individuals with a transfemoral amputation.Prosthetics Orthot. Int. 2014; 38: 447-455
- A comparative study of conventional and energy-storing prosthetic feet in high-functioning transfemoral amputees.Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 2007; 88: 801-806
- Temporal spatial and metabolic measures of walking in highly functional individuals with lower limb amputations.Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 2017; 98: 1389-1399
- Measurement of lower extremity kinematics during level walking.J. Orthopaed. Res. 1990; 8: 383-392
- Gait asymmetry of transfemoral amputees using mechanical and microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees.Clin. Biomech. (Bristol, Avon). 2012; 27: 460-465
- Gait adaptations of transfemoral prosthesis users across multiple walking tasks.Prosthetics Orthot. Int. 2016; 40: 89-95
- AIST Gait Database 2015.2015
- Predicting peak kinematic and kinetic parameters from gait speed.Gait Posture. 2003; 17: 106-112
- Gait and functional outcomes for young, active males with traumatic unilateral Transfemoral limb loss.Mil. Med. 2017; 182: e1913-e1923
- Ground reaction forces during sprinting in unilateral transfemoral amputees.J. Appl. Biomech. 2017; 33: 406-409
- Does increased prosthetic weight affect gait speed and patient preference in dysvascular transfemoral amputees?.Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 2003; 84: 1657-1661
- Energy costs and performance of transfemoral amputees and non-amputees during walking and running: a pilot study.Prosthetics Orthot. Int. 2017; 41: 484-491
- Carbon fibre prostheses and running in amputees: a review.Foot. Ankle Surg. 2008; 14: 125-129
- Lower limb strength in sports-active transtibial amputees.Prosthetics Orthot. Int. 2009; 33: 230-241
- A training programme to improve hip strength in persons with lower limb amputation.J. Rehabil. Med. 2012; 44: 241-248
- A single-blind, cross-over trial of hip abductor strength training to improve timed up & go performance in patients with unilateral, transfemoral amputation.J. Rehabil. Med. 2014; 46: 264-270
- Gait Analysis : Normal and Pathological Function.2nd ed. SLACK, Thorofare, NJ2010
- Sound limb loading in individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputation across a range of walking velocities.Clin. Biomech. (Bristol, Avon). 2015; 30: 1049-1055
- Isometric and isokinetic hip abductor strength in persons with above-knee amputations.Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 1988; 69: 840-845
- Leg stiffness during sprinting in transfemoral amputees with running-specific prosthesis.Gait Posture. 2017; 56: 65-67
- Functional gait asymmetry of unilateral transfemoral amputees.Hum. Mov. Sci. 2012; 31: 907-917
- Kinematic and kinetic comparisons of transfemoral amputee gait using C-Leg and Mauch SNS prosthetic knees.J. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 2006; 43: 857-870
- Persons with unilateral transfemoral amputation experience larger spinal loads during level-ground walking compared to able-bodied individuals.Clin. Biomech. (Bristol, Avon). 2016; 32: 157-163
- Differences in physical performance measures among patients with unilateral lower-limb amputations classified as functional level K3 versus K4.Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 2018; 99: 1333-1341
- Energy cost of walking in transfemoral amputees: comparison between Marlo anatomical socket and ischial containment socket.Gait Posture. 2011; 34: 270-274
- The Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Gait, 1st ed. ed. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.1987
- Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, 3rd ed ed.Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey2005
Published online: July 30, 2020
Accepted: July 21, 2020
Received: June 9, 2019
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.