- •The necessity of sternal precautions has been questioned.
- •The skin deformation was negative for flexion, abduction, lifting, and pushing.
- •The only movement requiring attention is bilateral shoulder extension.
- •No significant difference for flexion and the amounts of weights for lifting.
- •Preoperative physical therapy should include stabilizing scapular muscles.
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☆This paper was partly presented previously in abstract format at the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) Congress 2015 on May 1–4, 2015, Singapore.
☆☆Ethics approval for this study was sought and obtained from the Institutional Review Board at Youngstown State University.