Three-dimensional hip and knee kinematics during walking, running, and single-limb drop landing in females with and without genu valgum


      • Hip and knee kinematics during three dynamic tasks in healthy subjects with and without genu valgum were examined.
      • Tasks studied were walking, running and single-limb drop landing.
      • Group differences did not generally increase with higher force tasks.
      • The valgus group showed decreased hip flexion, increased hip adduction and increased knee abduction across tasks
      • The valgus subjects also showed increased knee external rotation during running and landing



      Dynamic knee valgus in females has been associated with various knee pathologies. Abnormal 3D hip and knee kinematics contribute prominently to this presentation, and these may become more aberrant with more demanding tasks. Underlying genu valgus may also accentuate such kinematics, but this effect has never been tested. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare 3D hip and knee kinematics during walking, running, and single-limb drop landing in females with and without genu valgus malalignment. We expected abnormal kinematics to become more evident in the valgus subjects as task demands increased.


      Eighteen healthy females with genu valgum and 18 female controls with normal alignment underwent 3D motion analysis while performing walking, running, and single-limb drop-landing trials. Sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane hip and knee kinematics were compared between groups across tasks using analyses of variance and between-group effect sizes.


      Group differences did not generally increase with higher forces. The valgus females demonstrated decreased hip flexion (ES = 0.72–0.88) and increased knee abduction (ES = 0.87–1.47) across the tasks. During running and single-limb drop landing, they showed increased knee external rotation (ES = 0.69–0.73). Finally, during walking, the valgus females showed increased hip adduction (ES = 0.69).


      These results suggest that females with genu valgus alignment utilize aberrant hip and knee mechanics previously associated with dynamic valgus in the literature, but that these pathomechanics do not generally worsen with rising task demands. Healthy females that present with genu valgus may be natively at elevated risk for knee pathology.


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