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Combined effect of change in humeral neck-shaft angle and retroversion on shoulder range of motion in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty — A simulation study

      Highlights

      • We suggest that change in neck shaft angle and retroversion can prevent scapular notching.
      • We measured shoulder range of motion with change in neck shaft angle (NSA) and retroversion.
      • As NSA and retroversion increase, the amount of adduction deficit also increases.
      • As NSA decreases, amount of total rotation increases.
      • As retroversion increases, amount of internal rotation behind back also increases.

      Abstract

      Background

      We studied combined effect of change in humeral neck shaft angle and retroversion on shoulder ROM in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty using 3-dimensional simulations.

      Methods

      Using a 3D model construct based on the CT scans of 3 males and a 3-dimensional analysis program, a humeral component of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty was implanted in 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°,40° retroversion and 135°, 145°, and 155° neck shaft angle. Total horizontal range of motion (sum of horizontal adduction and abduction) at 30° and 60° scaption, adduction in the scapular plane and IR behind the back were measured for various combinations of neck shaft angle and retroversion.

      Findings

      Change in retroversion didn't show any effect on total horizontal range of motion. Total horizontal range of motion at both 30° and 60° scaption, showed maximum values at 135° neck shaft angle and minimum values at 155° neck shaft angle. With any combination of retroversion angles, adduction deficit was maximum at 155° neck shaft angle and no adduction deficit at 135° neck shaft angle. Every 10° decrease in neck shaft angle resulted in an average 10.4° increase in adduction. For every 10° increase in retroversion, there was loss of internal rotation behind the back up to at least one vertebral level.

      Interpretation

      135° neck shaft angle resulted in maximum total horizontal range of motion both at 30° and 60° scaption regardless of retroversion angles. 135° neck shaft angle also reduced the chances of scapular impingement. Decrease in retroversion angle resulted in more amount of internal rotation behind the back.

      Keywords

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