Advertisement

Effects of barefoot and barefoot inspired footwear on knee and ankle loading during running

  • Jonathan Sinclair
    Affiliations
    Centre for Applied Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Lancashire, UK
    Darwin Building 217, Centre for Applied Sport Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, School of Sport Tourism and Outdoors, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire PR1 2HE, UK
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      Background

      Recreational runners frequently suffer from chronic pathologies. The knee and ankle have been highlighted as common injury sites. Barefoot and barefoot inspired footwear have been cited as treatment modalities for running injuries as opposed to more conventional running shoes. This investigation examined knee and ankle loading in barefoot and barefoot inspired footwear in relation to conventional running shoes.

      Method

      Thirty recreational male runners underwent 3D running analysis at 4.0 m·s−1. Joint moments, patellofemoral contact force and pressure and Achilles tendon forces were compared between footwear.

      Findings

      At the knee the results show that barefoot and barefoot inspired footwear were associated with significant reductions in patellofemoral kinetic parameters. The ankle kinetics indicate that barefoot and barefoot inspired footwear were associated with significant increases in Achilles tendon force compared to conventional shoes.

      Interpretation

      Barefoot and barefoot inspired footwear may serve to reduce the incidence of knee injuries in runners although corresponding increases in Achilles tendon loading may induce an injury risk at this tendon.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Clinical Biomechanics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Bonacci J.
        • Saunders P.
        • Hicks A.
        • Rantalainen T.
        • Vicenzino B.
        • Spratford W.
        Running in a minimalist and lightweight shoe is not the same as running barefoot: a biomechanical study.
        Br. J. Sports Med. 2013; 47: 387-392
        • Bonacci J.
        • Vicenzino B.
        • Spratford W.
        • Collins P.
        Take your shoes off to reduce patellofemoral joint stress during running.
        Br. J. Sports Med. 2013; (Epub ahead of print)https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092160
        • Cappozzo A.
        • Catani F.
        • Leardini A.
        • Benedeti M.G.
        • Della C.U.
        Position and orientation in space of bones during movement: anatomical frame definition and determination.
        Clin. Biomech. 1995; 10: 171-178
        • Ho K.Y.
        • Blanchette M.G.
        • Powers C.M.
        The influence of heel height on patellofemoral joint kinetics during walking.
        Gait Posture. 2012; 36: 271-275
        • Heino B.J.
        • Powers C.M.
        Patellofemoral stress during walking in persons with and without patellofemoral pain.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2002; 34: 1582-1593
        • Kulmala J.P.
        • Avela J.
        • Pasanen K.
        • Parkkari J.
        Forefoot strikers exhibit lower running-induced knee loading than rearfoot strikers.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2013; 45: 2306-2313
        • Lieberman D.E.
        • Venkadesan M.
        • Werbel W.A.
        • Daoud A.I.
        • D'Andrea S.
        • Davis I.S.
        • Mang'eni R.O.
        • Pitsiladis Y.
        Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners.
        Nature. 2010; 463: 531-535
        • Powers C.M.
        • Lilley J.C.
        • Lee T.Q.
        The effects of axial and multiplane loading of the extensor mechanism on the patellofemoral joint.
        Clin. Biomech. 1998; 13: 616-624
        • Self B.P.
        • Paine D.
        Ankle biomechanics during four landing techniques.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2001; 33: 1338-1344
        • Sinclair J.
        • Greenhalgh A.
        • Edmundson C.J.
        • Brooks D.
        • Hobbs S.J.
        The influence of barefoot and barefoot-inspired footwear on the kinetics and kinematics of running in comparison to conventional running shoes.
        Footwear Sci. 2013; 5: 45-53
        • Sinclair J.
        • Hobbs S.J.
        • Currigan G.
        • Taylor P.J.
        A comparison of several barefoot inspired footwear models in relation to barefoot and conventional and conventional running footwear.
        Comp. Exp. Phys. 2013; 9: 13-21
        • Sinclair J.
        • Hobbs S.J.
        • Taylor P.J.
        • Currigan G.
        • Greenhalgh A.
        The influence of different force measuring transducers on lower extremity kinematics.
        J. App. Biomech. 2013; (in press, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23877002)
        • Sinclair J.
        • Hobbs S.J.
        • Protheroe L.
        • Greenhalgh A.
        Determination of gait events using an externally mounted shank accelerometer.
        J. App. Biomech. 2013; 29: 118-122
        • van Eijden T.M.
        • Kouwenhoven E.
        • Verburg J.
        • Weijs W.A.
        A mathematical model of the patellofemoral joint.
        J. Biomech. 1986; 19: 219-229
        • van Gent R.N.
        • Siem D.
        • van Middelkoop M.
        • van Os A.G.
        • Bierma-Zeinstra S.M.A.
        • Koes B.W.
        Incidence and determinants of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners: a systematic review.
        Br. J. Sports Med. 2007; 41: 469-480
        • Ward S.R.
        • Powers C.M.
        The influence of patella alta on patellofemoral joint stress during normal and fast walking.
        Clin. Biomech. 2004; 19: 1040-1047