Advertisement

Resistance training is accompanied by increases in hip strength and changes in lower extremity biomechanics during running

      Abstract

      Background

      Movement and muscle activity of the hip have been shown to affect movement of the lower extremity, and been related to injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if increased hip strength affects lower extremity mechanics during running.

      Methods

      Within subject, repeated measures design. Fifteen healthy women volunteered. Hip abduction and external rotation strength were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. Three-dimensional biomechanical data of the lower extremity were collected during running using a high-speed motion capture system. Measurements were made before, at the mid-point, and after a 6-week strengthening program using closed-chain hip rotation exercises. Joint range of motion (rearfoot eversion, knee abduction, hip adduction, and internal rotation), eversion velocity, eversion angle at heel strike, and peak joint moments (rearfoot inversion, knee abduction, hip abduction, and external rotation) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (P ⩽ 0.05). The independent variable was time (pre-, week 3, and week 6). A separate analysis of variance was conducted with the dependent variables of peak hip abduction and external rotation strength.

      Findings

      Hip abduction (P = 0.009) and external rotation strength (P < 0.0005) increased by 13% and 23%, respectively. Eversion range of motion decreased (P = 0.05), hip adduction range of motion increased (P = 0.05), and a trend of decreased hip internal rotation range of motion (P = 0.08) were found. Rearfoot inversion moment (P = 0.02) and knee abduction moment (P = 0.05) decreased by 57% and 10%, respectively.

      Interpretation

      The hip abductors and external rotators were strengthened, leading to an alteration of lower extremity joint loading which may reduce injury risk. These exercises could be used in the rehabilitation, or prevention, of lower extremity injuries.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Clinical Biomechanics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Abe T.
        • Dehoyos D.V.
        • Pollock M.L.
        • Garzarella L.
        Time course for strength and muscle thickness changes following upper and lower body resistance training in men and women.
        Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2000; 81: 174-180
        • Baitch S.P.
        • Blake R.L.
        • Fineagan P.L.
        • Senatore J.
        Biomechanical analysis of running with 25 degrees inverted orthotic devices.
        J. Am. Pod. Med. Assoc. 1991; 81: 647-652
        • Bates B.T.
        • Osternig L.R.
        • Mason B.
        • James L.S.
        Foot orthotic devices to modify selected aspects of lower extremity mechanics.
        Am. J. Sports Med. 1979; 7: 338-342
        • Beckman S.
        • Buchanan T.
        Ankle inversion injury and hypermobility: effect on hip and ankle muscle electromyography onset latency.
        Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 1995; 76: 1138-1143
        • Bellchamber T.L.
        • van den Bogert A.J.
        Contributions of proximal and distal moments to axial tibial rotation during walking and running.
        J. Biomech. 2000; 33: 1397-1403
        • Boling M.C.
        • Bolgla L.A.
        • Mattacola C.G.
        • Uhl T.L.
        • Hosey R.G.
        Outcomes of a weight-bearing rehabilitation program for patients diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome.
        Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 2006; 87: 1428-1435
        • Bresler B.
        • Frankel J.
        The forces and moments in the leg during level walking.
        Trans. ASME. 1950; 72: 27-36
        • Brody D.
        Techniques in the evaluation and treatment of the injured runner.
        Orthop. Clin. North Am. 1982; 13: 541-558
        • Bullock-Saxton J.
        Changes in hip and knee muscle strength associated with ankle injury.
        NZ J. Physiother. 1993; 21: 10-14
        • Cibulka M.
        • Threlkeld-Watkins J.
        Patellofemoral pain and asymmetrical hip rotation.
        Phys. Ther. 2005; 85: 1201-1207
        • Cichanowski H.R.
        • Schmitt J.S.
        • Johnson R.J.
        • Niemuth P.E.
        Hip strength in collegiate female athletes with patellofemoral pain.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2007; 39: 1227-1232
        • Cohen J.
        A power primer.
        Psych. Bull. 1992; 112: 155-159
        • Crossley K.M.
        • Cowan S.M.
        • Mcconnell J.
        • Bennell K.L.
        Physical therapy improves knee flexion during stair ambulation in patellofemoral pain.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2005; 37: 176-183
        • Denegar C.
        • Ball D.
        Assessing reliability and precision of measurement: an introduction to intraclass correlation and standard errors of measurement.
        J. Sport Rehabil. 1993; 2: 35-42
        • Earl J.
        Gluteus medius activity during three variations of isometric single leg stance.
        J. Sport Rehabil. 2005; 14: 1-11
        • Feltner M.
        • Macrae H.
        • Macrae P.
        • Turner N.
        • Hartman C.
        • Summers M.
        • Welch M.
        Strength training effects on rearfoot motion in running.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1994; 26: 1021-1027
        • Ferber R.
        • Davis I.
        • Williams D.
        Gender differences in lower extremity mechanics during running.
        Clin. Biomech. 2003; 18: 350-357
        • Ferber R.
        • Mcclay Davis I.
        • Williams 3rd, D.S.
        • Laughton C.
        A comparison of within- and between-day reliability of discrete 3D lower extremity variables in runners.
        J. Orthop. Res. 2002; 20: 1139-1145
        • Frederiscon M.
        • Cookingham C.
        • Chaudhari A.
        • Dowdell B.
        • Oestreicher N.
        • Sahrmann S.
        Hip abductor weakness in distance runners with iliotibial band syndrome.
        Clin. J. Sports Med. 2000; 10: 169-175
        • Grood E.
        • Suntay M.
        A joint coordinate system for the clinical description of three-dimensional motions: applications to the knee.
        J. Biomech. Eng. 1983; 105: 136-144
        • Hreljac A.
        • Marshall R.N.
        • Hume P.A.
        Evaluation of lower extremity overuse injury potential in runners.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2000; 32: 1635-1641
        • Ireland M.
        The female ACL: why is it more prone to injury?.
        Orthop. Clin. North Am. 2002; 33: 637-651
        • Ireland M.
        • Willson J.
        • Ballantyne B.
        • Davis I.
        Hip strength in females with and without patellofemoral pain.
        J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 2003; 33: 671-676
        • Kaufman K.R.
        • Brodine S.K.
        • Shaffer R.A.
        • Johnson C.W.
        • Cullison T.R.
        The effect of foot structure and range of motion on musculoskeletal overuse injuries.
        Am. J. Sports Med. 1999; 27: 585-593
        • Knutzen K.
        • Price A.
        Lower extremity static and dynamic relationships with rearfoot motion in gait.
        J. Am. Pod. Med. Assoc. 1994; 84: 171-180
        • Leetun D.
        • Ireland M.
        • Willson J.
        • Ballantyne B.
        • Davis I.
        Core stability measures as risk factors for lower extremity in athletes.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2004; 36: 926-934
        • Malinzak R.
        • Colby S.
        • Kirkendall D.
        • Yu B.
        • Garrett W.
        A comparison of knee joint motion patterns between men and women in selected athletic tasks.
        Clin. Biomech. 2001; 16: 438-445
        • Mascal C.
        • Landel R.
        • Powers C.
        Management of patellofemoral pain targeting hip, pelvis, and trunk muscle function: 2 case reports.
        J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 2003; 33: 642-660
        • Mccomas A.
        Skeletal Muscle Form and Function.
        Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL1996
        • Menz H.
        Alternative techniques for the clinical assessment of foot pronation.
        J. Am. Pod. Med. Assoc. 1998; 88: 119-129
        • Mueller M.
        • Host J.
        • Norton B.
        Navicular drop as a composite measure of excessive pronation.
        J. Am. Pod. Med. Assoc. 1993; 83: 198-202
        • Nadler S.
        • Malanga G.
        • Deprince M.
        • Stitik T.
        • Feinberg J.
        The relationship between lower extremity injury, low back pain, and hip strength in male and female collegiate athletes.
        Clin. J. Sports Med. 2000; 10: 89-97
        • Nawoczenski D.A.
        • Cook T.M.
        • Saltzman C.L.
        The effect of foot orthoses on three-dimensional kinematics of the leg and rearfoot during running.
        J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 1995; 21: 317-327
        • Niemuth P.
        • Johnson R.
        • Myers M.
        • Thielman T.
        Hip muscle weakness and overuse injuries in recreational runners.
        Clin. J. Sports Med. 2005; 15: 14-21
        • Nigg B.M.
        The role of impact forces and foot pronation: a new paradigm.
        Clin. J. Sports Med. 2001; : 2-9
        • O’Connor K.
        • Hamill J.
        The role of selected extrinsic foot muscles during running.
        Clin. Biomech. 2004; 19: 71-77
        • Powers C.
        The influence of altered lower-extremity kinematics on patellofemoral joint dysfunction: a theoretical perspective.
        J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 2003; 33: 639-646
        • Schmitz R.
        • Riemann B.
        • Thompson T.
        Gluteus medius activity during isometric closed-chain hip rotation.
        J. Sport Rehabil. 2002; 11: 179-188
        • Smith L.S.
        • Clarke T.E.
        • Hamill C.L.
        • Santopietro F.
        The effects of soft and semi-rigid orthoses upon rearfoot movement in running.
        J. Am. Pod. Med. Assoc. 1986; 76: 227-233
        • Stackhouse C.L.
        • Davis I.M.
        • Hamill J.
        Orthotic intervention in forefoot and rearfoot strike running patterns.
        Clin. Biomech. 2004; 19: 64-70
        • Stacoff A.
        • Reinschmidt C.
        • Nigg B.M.
        • van den Bogert A.J.
        • Lundberg A.
        • Denoth J.
        • Stussi E.
        Effects of foot orthoses on skeletal motion during running.
        Clin. Biomech. 2000; 15: 54-64
        • Starkey C.
        • Ryan J.
        Evaluation of Orthopedic and Athletic Injuries.
        F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA1996
        • Stefanyshyn D.
        • Stergiou P.
        • Lun V.
        • Meeuwisse W.
        • Worobets J.
        Knee angular impulse as a predictor of patellofemoral pain in runners.
        Am. J. Sports Med. 2006; 34: 1844-1851
        • Taunton J.
        • Ryan M.
        • Clement D.
        • Mckenzie D.
        • Lloyd-Smith D.
        • Zumbo B.
        A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries.
        Br. J. Sports Med. 2002; 36: 95-101
        • Tyler T.
        • Nicholas S.
        • Mullaney M.
        • Mchugh M.
        The role of hip muscle function in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome.
        Am. J. Sports Med. 2006; 34: 630-636
        • van Mechelen W.
        Running injuries. A review of the epidemiological literature.
        Sports Med. 1992; 14: 320-335