Advertisement

Axial neck rotation strength in neutral and prerotated postures

      Abstract

      Objective. To characterize isometric rotation strength in the neutral and in different prerotated positions of the neck.
      Design. This was a descriptive study involving maximal isometric strength measurements of the cervical musculature.
      Background. The literature contains only a few studies pertaining to strength levels of the neck rotator muscles in the neutral position. None of these studies have dealt in detail with maximal neck strength in selected prerotation positions.
      Method. Twenty healthy men volunteered as subjects. Maximal axial rotation strength of the neck muscles was measured in a neutral position and bilaterally at 30° and 60° rotation using the isometric neck strength measurement system. Isometric maximum voluntary contractions of the neck muscles in flexion and extension were also tested.
      Results. The highest strength values were not reached in the neutral position, but at the largest joint angles, while turning the head in the opposite direction from the prerotated position. Maximal strength increased with increasing angle, and at the 60° prerotation angle it was 44% higher towards the right and 27% higher towards the left compared to the values obtained in the neutral position. The smallest strength values were also produced at the largest prerotation angles, but in the same direction.
      Conclusions. The present results show a clear relationship between the prerotated position of the neck and maximal voluntary strength in rotation.Relevance
      The data suggest that neck strength is highly prerotation angle dependent. Neck strength should be measured at several prerotation positions in addition to the neutral position in order to obtain the true strength values throughout the entire range of motion. Maximal neck rotation strength between subjects is differentiated best at the greatest prerotation angles.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Clinical Biomechanics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ahlgren C.
        • Waling K.
        • Kadi F.
        • Djupsjöbacka M.
        • Thornell L.-E.
        • Sundelin G.
        Effects on physical performance and pain from three dynamic training programs for women with work-related trapezius myalgia.
        J. Rehabil. Med. 2001; 33: 162-169
        • Alricsson M.
        • Harms-Ringdahl K.
        • Schuldt K.
        • Ekholm J.
        • Linder J.
        Mobility, muscular strength and endurance in the cervical spine in Swedish Air Force pilots.
        Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 2001; 72: 336-342
        • Barton P.M.
        • Hayes K.C.
        Neck flexor muscle strength, efficiency, and relaxation times in normal subjects and subjects with unilateral neck pain and headache.
        Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 1996; 77: 680-687
        • Basmajian J.V.
        • de Luca C.
        Muscles Alive.
        5th ed. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore1985
        • Berg H.
        • Berggren G.
        • Tesch P.
        Dynamic neck strength training effect are pain and function.
        Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 1994; 75: 661-665
        • Bronfort G.
        • Evans R.
        • Nelson B.
        • Aker P.D.
        • Goldsmith C.H.
        • Vernon H.
        A randomized clinical trial of exercise and spinal manipulation for patients with chronic neck pain.
        Spine. 2001; 26: 788-799
        • Chiu T.T.
        • Lam T.H.
        • Hedley A.J.
        Maximal isometric muscle strength of the cervical spine in healthy volunteers.
        Clin. Rehabil. 2002; 16: 772-779
        • Chiu T.T.
        • Lo S.K.
        Evaluation of cervical range of motion and isometric neck muscle strength: reliability and validity.
        Clin. Rehabil. 2002; 16: 851-858
        • Conley M.S.
        • Meyer R.A.
        • Bloomberg J.J.
        • Feeback D.L.
        • Dudley G.A.
        Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function.
        Spine. 1995; 20: 2505-2512
        • Costa D.
        • Vitti M.
        • De Oliveria Tosello D.
        Electromyographic study of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in head movements.
        Electromyogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 1990; 30: 429-434
        • Gargés G.L.
        • Medina D.
        • Milutinovic L.
        • Garatove L.
        • Guerado E.
        Normative database of isometric cervical strength in a healthy population.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2002; 33: 464-470
        • Gogia P.P.
        • Sabbahi M.A.
        Electromyographic analysis of neck muscle fatigue in patients with osteoarthritis of the cervical spine.
        Spine. 1994; 19: 502-506
        • Gordon A.M.
        • Huxley A.F.
        • Julian F.J.
        The variation in isometric tension with sarcomere length in vertebrate muscle fibres.
        J. Physiol. 1966; 184: 170-192
        • Graves J.E.
        • Pollock M.I.
        • Jones A.E.
        • Colvin A.B.
        • Leggett S.H.
        Specifity of limited range of motion variable resistance training.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1989; 21: 84-89
        • Highland T.R.
        • Dreisinger T.E.
        • Vie L.L.
        • Russel G.S.
        Changes of isometric strength and range of motion of the isolated cervical spine after eight weeks of clinical rehabilitation.
        Spine. 1992; 17: 77-82
        • Jordan A.
        • Mehlsen J.
        Cervicobrachial syndrome and neck muscle function: effects of rehabilitation.
        J. Musculoske. Pain. 1993; 1: 283-288
        • Jordan A.
        • Mehlsen J.
        • Bülow P.M.
        • Østergaard K.
        • Danneskiold-Samsøe B.
        Maximal isometric strength of the cervical musculature in 100 healthy volunteers.
        Spine. 1999; 24: 1343-1348
        • Jordan A.
        • Mehlsen J.
        • Østergaard K.
        A comparison of physical characteristics between patients seeking treatment for neck pain and matched healthy individuals.
        J. Manip. Physiol. Ther. 1997; 20: 468-475
        • Kulig K.
        • Andrews J.G.
        • Hay J.G.
        Human strength curves.
        Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 1984; 12: 417-466
        • Kumar S.
        Axial rotation strength in seated neutral and prerotated postures of young adults.
        Spine. 1997; 22: 2213-2221
        • Kumar S.
        • Narayan Y.
        • Amell T.
        Cervical strength of young adults in sagittal, coronal, and intermediate planes.
        Clin. Biomech. 2001; 16: 380-388
        • Leggett S.H.
        • DeFilippo G.
        • Trinkle J.
        • Graves J.E.
        • Pollock M.L.
        • Carpenter D.M.
        Effect of training frequency on cervical rotation strength.
        Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1991; 23: S118
        • Levoska S.
        • Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S.
        Active or passive physiotherapy for occupational cervicobrachial disorders? A comparison of two treatment methods with a 1-year follow-up.
        Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 1993; 74: 425-430
        • Levoska S.
        • Keinänen-Kiukanniemi S.
        • Hämäläinen O.
        • Jämsä T.
        • Vanharanta H.
        Reliability of a simple method of measuring isometric neck muscle force.
        Clin. Biomech. 1992; 7: 33-37
        • Lieber R.L.
        • Shoemaker S.D.
        Muscle, joint and tendon contributions to the torque profile of frog hip joint.
        Am. J. Physiol. 1992; 32: 586-590
        • Mathiowetz V.
        • Canditate P.
        Reliability and validity of grip and pinch strength measurements.
        Phys. Rehabil. Med. 1991; 4: 201-212
        • Mayoux-Benhamou M.A.
        • Revel M.
        • Vallee C.
        Selective electromyography of dorsal neck muscles in humans.
        Exp. Brain Res. 1997; 113: 353-360
        • Peolsson A.
        • Hedlund R.
        • Ertzgaard S.
        • Öberg B.
        Intra- and inter-tester reliability and range of motion of the neck.
        Physiother. Can. 2000; 52: 233-245
        • Peolsson A.
        • Hedlund R.
        • Öberg B.
        Intra- and inter-tester reliability and refence values for hand strength.
        J. Rehabil. Med. 2001; 33: 36-41
        • Peolsson A.
        • Öberg B.
        Intra- and inter-tester reliability and reference values for isometric neck strength.
        Physiother. Res. Int. 2001; 6: 15-26
        • Queisser F.
        • Blüthner R.
        • Seidel H.
        Control of positioning the cervical spine and its application to measuring extensor strength.
        Clin. Biomech. 1994; 9: 157-161
        • Randløv A.
        • Ostergaard M.
        • Manniche C.
        • Kryger P.
        • Jordan A.
        • Heegaard S.
        • Holm B.
        Intensive dynamic training for females with chronic neck/shoulder pain. A randomized controlled trial.
        Clin. Rehabil. 1998; 12: 200-210
        • Silverman J.L.
        • Rodriquez A.A.
        • Agre J.C.
        Quantitative cervical flexor strength in healthy subjects and in subjects with mechanical neck pain.
        Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 1991; 72: 679-681
        • Singh V.
        • Karpowitch P.
        Isotonic and isometric forces of forearm flexors and extensors.
        J. Appl. Physiol. 1966; 21: 1435-1437
        • Takebe K.
        • Vitti M.
        • Basmajian J.V.
        The functions of semispinalis capitis and splenius capitis muscles: an electromyographic study.
        Anat. Rec. 1974; 179: 477-480
        • Valkeinen H.
        • Ylinen J.
        • Mälkiä E.
        • Alen M.
        • Häkkinen K.
        Maximal force, force/time and activation/coactivation characteristics of the neck muscles in extension and flexion in healthy men and women at different ages.
        Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2002; 88: 247-254
        • Vasavada A.N.
        • Li S.
        • Delp S.L.
        Influence of muscle morphometry and moment arms on the isometric moment-generating capacity of human neck muscles.
        Spine. 1998; 23: 412-422
        • Vasavada A.N.
        • Siping L.
        • Delp S.L.
        Three-dimensional isometric strength of neck muscles in humans.
        Spine. 2001; 26: 1904-1909
        • Vitti M.
        • Fujiwara M.
        • Basmajian J.V.
        The integrated roles of longus colli and sternocleidomastoid muscles: an electromyographic study.
        Anat. Rec. 1973; 177: 471-484
        • Von Hettinger T.
        Isometrisches Muskeltraining.
        Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart1983 (pp. 40–52)
        • Ylinen J.
        • Asghar R.-S.
        • Julin M.
        • Virtapohja H.
        • Mälkiä E.
        Reproducibility of isometric strength measurement of neck muscles.
        Clin. Biomech. 1999; 14: 217-219
        • Ylinen J.
        • Ruuska J.
        Clinical use of neck isometric strength measurement in rehabilitation.
        Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 1994; 75: 465-469