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Passive extensibility of skeletal muscle: review of the literature with clinical implications

      Abstract

      The purpose of this article was to review the literature on passive extensibility of skeletal muscle with reference to its anatomic and physiologic properties, mechanisms of adaptations and clinical implications. Studies with animal muscles have shown that passive extensibility is influenced by the size (mass) and length of muscle fibers, and the amount and arrangement of the connective tissues of the muscle belly. The resistance to passive lengthening is influenced by the readily adaptable amount of muscle tissue, including the contractile proteins and the non-contractile proteins of the sarcomere cytoskeletons. The relationship of adaptable changes in the muscle tissue and in the extracellular connective tissues remains unclear. Muscle length adaptations result from changes in the number of sarcomeres in series, which depend on the imposed length of muscles, not on the level of muscle activation and tension. This mechanism of muscle length adaptations, termed ‘myogenic’, has not been demonstrated in human muscles, but it has been intimated by therapeutic lengthening studies showing that both healthy and neurologically impaired human muscles can undergo increased length adaptations in the presence of muscle activations. Studies have suggested that optimal muscle function is probably achieved by increasing muscle length, length extensibility, passive elastic stiffness, mass and strength, but additional studies are needed to investigate these relationships, particularly for aged muscles and for muscles affected by clinical disorders, disease and injury. Such studies could contribute to the development of new intervention strategies designed to promote the passive muscle extensibility that enhances total muscle function, and ultimately improves the ability to complete functional activities and excel in athletic performances.

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